Fast radix-32 approximate dfts for 1024-beam digital rf beamforming

Arjuna Madanayake, Renato J. Cintra, Najath Akram, Viduneth Ariyarathna, Soumyajit Mandal, Vitor A. Coutinho, Fabio M. Bayer, Diego Coelho, Theodore S. Rappaport

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is widely employed for multi-beam digital beamforming. The DFT can be efficiently implemented through the use of fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms, thus reducing chip area, power consumption, processing time, and consumption of other hardware resources. This paper proposes three new hybrid DFT 1024-point DFT approximations and their respective fast algorithms. These approximate DFT (ADFT) algorithms have significantly reduced circuit complexity and power consumption compared to traditional FFT approaches while trading off a subtle loss in computational precision which is acceptable for digital beamforming applications in RF antenna implementations. ADFT algorithms have not been introduced for beamforming beyond N = 32 , but this paper anticipates the need for massively large adaptive arrays for future 5G and 6G systems. Digital CMOS circuit designs for the ADFTs show the resulting improvements in both circuit complexity and power consumption metrics. Simulation results show similar or lower critical path delay with up to 48.5% lower chip area compared to a standard Cooley-Tukey FFT. The time-area and dynamic power metrics are reduced up to 66.0%. The 1024-point ADFT beamformers produce signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gains between 29.2-30.1 dB, which is a loss of ≤ 0.9 dB SNR gain compared to exact 1024-point DFT beamformers (worst case) realizable at using an FFT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9093889
Pages (from-to)96613-96627
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Access
StatePublished - 2020


  • 5G
  • Approximation
  • Beamforming
  • Beamsteering
  • Dft
  • Discrete fourier transform
  • Fast algorithm
  • Fft
  • Fourier transform
  • Massive mimo
  • Mimo
  • Radix
  • Vlsi

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Computer Science
  • General Materials Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Fast radix-32 approximate dfts for 1024-beam digital rf beamforming'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this