## Abstract

This work establishes low test error of gradient flow (GF) and stochastic gradient descent (SGD) on two-layer ReLU networks with standard initialization scale, in three regimes where key sets of weights rotate little (either naturally due to GF and SGD, or due to an artificial constraint), and making use of margins as the core analysis technique.The first regime is near initialization, specifically until the weights have moved by O(√m), where m denotes the network width, which is in sharp contrast to the O(1) weight motion allowed by the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK); here it is shown that GF and SGD only need a network width and number of samples inversely proportional to the NTK margin, and moreover that GF attains at least the NTK margin itself and in particular escapes bad KKT points of the margin objective, whereas prior work could only establish nondecreasing but arbitrarily small margins.The second regime is the Neural Collapse (NC) setting, where data lies in well-separated groups, and the sample complexity scales with the number of groups; here the contribution over prior work is an analysis of the entire GF trajectory from initialization.Lastly, if the inner layer weights are constrained to change in norm only and can not rotate, then GF with large widths achieves globally maximal margins, and its sample complexity scales with their inverse; this is in contrast to prior work, which required infinite width and a tricky dual convergence assumption.

Original language | English (US) |
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State | Published - 2023 |

Event | 11th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2023 - Kigali, Rwanda Duration: May 1 2023 → May 5 2023 |

### Conference

Conference | 11th International Conference on Learning Representations, ICLR 2023 |
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Country/Territory | Rwanda |

City | Kigali |

Period | 5/1/23 → 5/5/23 |

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Language and Linguistics
- Computer Science Applications
- Education
- Linguistics and Language