Female fertile phase synchrony, and male mating and reproductive skew, in the crested macaque

James P. Higham, Michael Heistermann, Muhammad Agil, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Anja Widdig, Antje Engelhardt

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    High social status is the primary determinant of reproductive success among group-living male mammals. Primates living in multimale–multifemale groups show the greatest variation in the strength of this link, with marked variation in reproductive skew by male dominance among species, dependent on the degree of female fertile phase synchrony, and the number of competing males. Here, we present data on two groups of wild crested macaques (Macaca nigra), living in the Tangkoko Reserve, Sulawesi, Indonesia. We investigated male monopolization of fertile females in 31 cycles of 19 females, and genetic paternity of 14 offspring conceived during the study period. We show that female fertile phase synchrony was low, that females had few mating partners in their fertile phase, and that dominant males monopolized a high proportion of consortships and matings, resulting in marked and steep mating and reproductive skew. We conclude that female cycle asynchrony provides the opportunity for strong direct male–male competition in crested macaques, resulting in monopolization of females by dominant males, consistent with their marked sexual dimorphism. Our study provides a test of the underlying factors that determine the relative occurrence and strength of different mechanisms of sexual selection, and the phenotypes that evolve as a result.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number4251
    JournalScientific reports
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Dec 2021

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General


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