Fetal Gender Identification using Machine and Deep Learning Algorithms on Phonocardiogram Signals

Reza Khanmohammadi, Mitra Sadat Mirshafiee, Mohammad Mahdi Ghassemi, Tuka Alhanai

Research output: Working paperPreprint


Phonocardiogram (PCG) signal analysis is a critical, widely-studied technology to noninvasively analyze the heart's mechanical activity. Through evaluating heart sounds, this technology has been chiefly leveraged as a preliminary solution to automatically diagnose Cardiovascular diseases among adults; however, prenatal tasks such as fetal gender identification have been relatively less studied using fetal Phonocardiography (FPCG). In this work, we apply common PCG signal processing techniques on the gender-tagged Shiraz University Fetal Heart Sounds Database and study the applicability of previously proposed features in classifying fetal gender using both Machine Learning and Deep Learning models. Even though PCG data acquisition's cost-effectiveness and feasibility make it a convenient method of Fetal Heart Rate (FHR) monitoring, the contaminated nature of PCG signals with the noise of various types makes it a challenging modality. To address this problem, we experimented with both static and adaptive noise reduction techniques such as Low-pass filtering, Denoising Autoencoders, and Source Separators. We apply a wide range of previously proposed classifiers to our dataset and propose a novel ensemble method of Fetal Gender Identification (FGI). Our method substantially outperformed the baseline and reached up to 91% accuracy in classifying fetal gender of unseen subjects.
Original languageEnglish (US)
StatePublished - Oct 10 2021


  • eess.SP
  • cs.LG


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