Field-validated load model for the analysis of CVR in distribution secondary networks: Energy conservation

Marc Diaz-Aguilo, Julien Sandraz, Richard Macwan, Francisco De Leon, Dariusz Czarkowski, Christopher Comack, David Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a field-validated load model for the calculation of the energy conservation gains due to conservation voltage reduction (CVR) in highly meshed secondary networks. Several networks in New York City are modeled in detail. A time resolution of one hour is used to compute the energy savings in a year. A total of 8760 power flow runs per year for voltage reductions of 0%, 2.25%, 4%, 6%, and 8% from the normal schedule are computed. An equivalent ZIP model is obtained for the network for active and reactive powers. The most important finding is that voltage reductions of up to 4% can be safely implemented in the majority of the New York City networks, without the need of investments in infrastructure. The networks under analysis show CVR factors between 0.5 and 1 for active power and between 1.2 and 2 for reactive power, leading to the conclusion that the implementation of CVR will provide energy and economic savings for the utility and the customer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6563172
Pages (from-to)2428-2436
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013


  • Conservation voltage optimization (CVO)
  • ZIP coefficients model
  • conservation voltage reduction (CVR)
  • load model
  • system losses reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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