Purpose: To establish a consensus in relation to case selection, conduct of therapy, and outcomes that are associated with focal therapy for men with localized prostate cancer. Material and Methods: Urologic surgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, and histopathologists from North America and Europe participated in a consensus workshop on focal therapy for prostate cancer. The consensus process was face to face within a structured meeting, in which pertinent clinical issues were raised, discussed, and agreement sought. Where no agreement was possible, this was acknowledged, and the nature of the disagreement noted. Results: Candidates for focal treatment should have unilateral low- to intermediate-risk disease with clinical stage ≤cT 2a. Prostate size and both tumor volume and tumor topography are important case selection criteria that depend on the ablative technology used. Currently, the best method to ascertain the key characteristics for men who are considering focal therapy is exposure to transperineal template mapping biopsies. MRI of the prostate using novel techniques such as dynamic contrast enhancement and diffusion weighed imaging are increasingly being used to diagnose and stage primary prostate cancer with excellent results. For general use, however, these new techniques require validation in prospective clinical trials. Until such are performed, MRI will, in most centers, continue to be an investigative tool in assessing eligibility of patients for focal therapy. Conclusions: Consensus was derived for most of the key aspects of case selection, conduct of treatment, and outcome measures for men who are undergoing focal therapy for localized prostate cancer. The level of agreement achieved will pave the way for future collaborative trials.
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