Neurons in primary visual cortex, V1, very often have extraclassical receptive fields (eCRFs). The eCRF is defined as the region of visual space where stimuli cannot elicit a spiking response but can modulate the response of a stimulus in the classical receptive field (CRF).We investigated the dependence of the eCRF on stimulus contrast and orientation in macaque V1 cells for which the laminar location was determined. The eCRF was more sensitive to contrast than the CRF across the whole population of V1 cells with the greatest contrast differential in layer 2/3. We confirmed that many V1 cells experience stronger suppression for collinear than orthogonal stimuli in the eCRF. Laminar analysis revealed that the predominant bias for collinear suppression was found in layers 2/3 and 4b. The laminar pattern of contrast and orientation dependence suggests that eCRF suppression may derive from different neural circuits in different layers, and may be comprised of two distinct components: orientation-tuned and untuned suppression. On average tuned suppression was delayed by ~25 ms compared with the onset of untuned suppression. Therefore, response modulation by the eCRF develops dynamically and rapidly in time.
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