Functionally graded and multi-morphology sheet TPMS lattices: Design, manufacturing, and mechanical properties

Oraib Al-Ketan, Dong Wook Lee, Reza Rowshan, Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Functionally graded and multi-morphology lattices are gaining increased attention recently in the tissue engineering research community because of the ability to control their physical, mechanical and geometrical properties spatially. In this work, relative density grading, cell size grading, and multi-morphology (lattice type grading) are mechanically investigated for sheet-based lattices with topologies based on triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), namely; the Schoen Gyroid, and Schwarz Diamond minimal surfaces. To investigate the role of loading direction on the exhibited deformation mechanism, tests were performed parallel and perpendicular to the grading direction. For relative density grading, testing parallel to grading direction exhibited a layer-by-layer deformation mechanism with a lower Young's Modulus as compared to samples tested perpendicular to grading direction which exhibited a shear band deformation. Moreover, multi-morphology lattices exhibited a shift in deformation mechanism from layer-by-layer to the formation of a shear band at the interface between the different TPMS morphologies when tested parallel and perpendicular to hybridization direction, respectively. FE analysis revealed that sheet-networks multi-morphology lattices exhibit higher elastic properties as compared to solid-networks multi-morphology lattices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103520
JournalJournal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
StatePublished - Feb 2020


  • Functional grading
  • Lattices
  • Multi-morphology
  • Powder bed fusion
  • Triply periodic minimal surfaces

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials


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