Gender Differences in HIV, HCV risk and Prevention Needs Among People who Inject drug in Vietnam

Hoang Thi Giang, Nguyen Quang Duc, Pham Minh Khue, Catherine Quillet, Khuat Thi Hai Oanh, Nham Thi Tuyet Thanh, Roselyne Vallo, Jonathan Feelemyer, Vu Hai Vinh, Delphine Rapoud, Laurent Michel, Didier Laureillard, Jean Pierre Moles, Don Des Jarlais, Nicolas Nagot, Duong Thi Huong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We examined gender differences among people who inject drug (PWID) in Hai Phong, Vietnam in term of blood-borne infections, risk behaviors, and access to care. Using respondent-driven-sampling surveys, we recruited 3146 PWID from 2016 to 2018. Inclusion criteria included a positive urine test for heroin and recent injection marks. There were 155 female PWID (4,9%), including 82 at RDS-2016, 32 at RDS-2017 and 38 at RDS-2018. The age mean was 36.3 ± 7.2 years. The majority of female PWID had less than high school education (90.9%) and were unemployed (51.3%). There was no difference in the proportion of HIV and HCV positive by gender. However, women had several significant differences in risk behaviors than men in multivariable logistic regression. Being a woman was independently associated with being unemployed, being a sex worker, having unstable housing, having uses drugs for less than 5 years, more use of methamphetamine, having a partner who ever injected drugs, and less access to methadone treatment. Interventions targeting female PWID are needed, possibly through community organizations and peer educators.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1989-1997
Number of pages9
JournalAIDS and Behavior
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023


  • HIV risk
  • People who inject drugs
  • Prevention needs
  • Vietnam
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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