Objective: To determine how gestational weight gain (GWG), categorized using the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations, relates to changes in offspring weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) between early infancy and 3 years. Methods: Women with singleton infants were recruited from the third cohort of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (2001-2005). Term infants with at least one weight or length measurement during the study period were included (n = 476). Multivariable linear mixed effects regression models estimated longitudinal changes in WAZ, LAZ and WLZ associated with GWG. Results: In early infancy, compared with infants of women with adequate weight gain, those of women with excessive weight gains had higher WAZ, LAZ and WLZ. Excessive GWG ≥ 200% of the recommended amount was associated with faster rates of change in WAZ and LAZ and noticeably higher predicted mean WAZ and WLZ that persisted across the study period. Conclusions: GWG is associated with significant differences in offspring anthropometrics in early infancy that persisted to 3 years of age. More longitudinal studies that utilize maternal and paediatric body composition measures are necessary to understand the nature of this association.
- Gestational weight gain
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Health Policy
- Nutrition and Dietetics
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health