Gingival crevicular fluid bone turnover biomarkers: How postmenopausal women respond to orthodontic activation

Sorapan Smuthkochorn, J. Martin Palomo, Mark G. Hans, Corey S. Jones, Leena Palomo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction Bone turnover associated with orthodontic tooth movement is evidenced by increased bone turnover markers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Postmenopausal women have an increased concentration of serum bone turnover markers. The filtrate of this serum makes up GCF, but little is known of the bone turnover around teeth in this cohort. The objective of this investigation was to compare the GCF bone turnover markers in premenopausal vs postmenopausal women receiving orthodontic treatment at baseline and at orthodontic activation. Methods Twenty-eight women were enrolled in the study and separated into 2 groups: premenopausal (16) and postmenopausal (12). Bone turnover was evaluated by GCF at baseline and 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation. GCF concentrations of RANKL and OPN were measured using ELISA. Baseline and change in concentrations were compared between groups. Results Baseline RANKL and OPN were significantly different between the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups (P <0.05). Both markers increased significantly from baseline to 24 hours after orthodontic appliance activation in both groups (P <0.05). However, the response to orthodontic activation was not significantly different between groups. Conclusions Although postmenopausal women have a different bone turnover profile at baseline than do their premenopausal counterparts, there is no difference in their response to orthodontic activation. This confers a level of security associated with orthodontic activation. Future studies are warranted to construct biomarker curves throughout orthodontic therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-37
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2017


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers/analysis
  • Bone Remodeling/physiology
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid/chemistry
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteopontin/analysis
  • Postmenopause/physiology
  • RANK Ligand/analysis
  • Tooth Movement Techniques/adverse effects
  • Young Adult

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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