Grad-Shafranov equilibria via data-free physics informed neural networks

Byoungchan Jang, Alan A. Kaptanoglu, Rahul Gaur, Shaowu Pan, Matt Landreman, William Dorland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A large number of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium calculations are often required for uncertainty quantification, optimization, and real-time diagnostic information, making MHD equilibrium codes vital to the field of plasma physics. In this paper, we explore a method for solving the Grad-Shafranov equation by using physics-informed neural networks (PINNs). For PINNs, we optimize neural networks by directly minimizing the residual of the partial differential equation as a loss function. We show that PINNs can accurately and effectively solve the Grad-Shafranov equation with several different boundary conditions, making it more flexible than traditional solvers. This method is flexible as it does not require any mesh and basis choice, thereby streamlining the computational process. We also explore the parameter space by varying the size of the model, the learning rate, and boundary conditions to map various tradeoffs such as between reconstruction error and computational speed. Additionally, we introduce a parameterized PINN framework, expanding the input space to include variables such as pressure, aspect ratio, elongation, and triangularity in order to handle a broader range of plasma scenarios within a single network. Parameterized PINNs could be used in future work to solve inverse problems such as shape optimization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number032510
JournalPhysics of Plasmas
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics


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