Halitosis. A common oral problem.

A. I. Spielman, P. Bivona, B. R. Rifkin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Halitosis is caused primarily by bacterial putrefaction and the generation of volatile sulfur compounds. Ninety percent of patients suffering from halitosis have oral causes, such as poor oral hygiene, periodontal disease, tongue coat, food impaction, unclean dentures, faulty restorations, oral carcinomas, and throat infections. The remaining 10 percent of halitosis sufferers have systemic causes that include renal or hepatic failure, carcinomas, diabetes or trimethylaminuria. Modern analytical and microbiological techniques permit diagnosis of bad breath. Management of halitosis involves maintaining proper oral hygiene, and periodontal treatment, including tongue brushing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)36-42
Number of pages7
JournalThe New York state dental journal
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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