Haptic Guidance to Support Handwriting for Children with Learning Difficulties

Wanjoo Park, Vahan Babushkin, Samra Tahir, Mohamad Eid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recently-emerged haptic guidance systems have a potential to facilitate the acquisition of handwriting skills in both adults and children. In this paper we present a longitudinal experimental study that examined the effects of haptic guidance to improve handwriting skills in children with learning difficulties. A haptic-based handwriting training platform that provides haptic guidance along the trajectory of a handwriting task was utilized. 12 children with mild intellectual difficulty, experiencing challenges in manipulating the visual information to control a pincer grip, participated in the study. Children were divided into two groups, a target group and a control group. The target group completed haptic-guided training and pencil-and-paper test whereas the control group took only the pencil-and-paper test without any training. A total of 32 handwriting tasks was used in the study where 16 tasks were used for training while the entire 32 tasks were completed for evaluation. Results demonstrated that the target group performed significantly better than the control group for handwriting tasks that are visually familiar but haptically difficult (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p<0.01). An improvement was also seen in the performance of untrained tasks as well as trained tasks (Spearman's linear correlation coefficient, 0.667; p=0.05).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Evaluation/Methodology
  • Haptic Interfaces
  • Psychology
  • User-centered Design

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications

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