Hardware trojans: Lessons learned after one decade of research

K. Xiao, D. Forte, Y. Jin, R. Karri, S. Bhunia, M. Tehranipoor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Given the increasing complexity of modern electronics and the cost of fabrication, entities from around the globe have become more heavily involved in all phases of the electronics supply chain. In this environment, hardware Trojans (i.e., malicious modifications or inclusions made by untrusted third parties) pose major security concerns, especially for those integrated circuits (ICs) and systems used in critical applications and cyber infrastructure. While hardware Trojans have been explored significantly in academia over the last decade, there remains room for improvement. In this article, we examine the research on hardware Trojans from the last decade and attempt to capture the lessons learned. A comprehensive adversarial model taxonomy is introduced and used to examine the current state of the art. Then the past countermeasures and publication trends are categorized based on the adversarial model and topic. Through this analysis, we identify what has been covered and the important problems that are underinvestigated. We also identify the most critical lessons for those new to the field and suggest a roadmap for future hardware Trojan research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6
JournalACM Transactions on Design Automation of Electronic Systems
Volume22
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2016

Keywords

  • Attack model
  • Countermeasures
  • Hardware Trojan attacks
  • Hardware security and trust

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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