Hierarchically Porous Calcium Carbonate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Abiy D. Woldetsadik, Sudhir K. Sharma, Sachin Khapli, Ramesh Jagannathan, Mazin Magzoub

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hierarchically porous CaCO3 scaffolds comprised of micro- (diameter = 2.0 ± 0.3 μm) and nano-sized (diameter = 50.4 ± 14.4 nm) pores were fabricated on silicon substrates using a supercritical CO2-based process. Differentiated human THP-1 monocytes exposed to the CaCO3 scaffolds produced negligible levels of the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), confirming the lack of immunogenicity of the scaffolds. Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, vitronectin and fibronectin, displayed enhanced adsorption to the scaffolds compared to the silicon controls. ECM protein-coated CaCO3 scaffolds promoted adhesion, growth, and proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. MC3T3 cells grown on the CaCO3 scaffolds produced substantially higher levels of transforming growth factor-beta and vascular endothelial growth factor A, which regulate osteoblast differentiation, and exhibited markedly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of early osteoblast differentiation, compared to controls. Moreover, the CaCO3 scaffolds stimulated matrix mineralization (calcium deposition), an end point of advanced osteoblast differentiation and an important biomarker for bone tissue formation. Taken together, these results demonstrate the significant potential of the hierarchically porous CaCO3 scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2457-2469
Number of pages13
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 9 2017


  • hierarchically porous CaCO scaffolds
  • matrix mineralization
  • osteoblast MC3T3 cells
  • osteoblast adhesion
  • proliferation and differentiation
  • supercritical CO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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