High Altitude Platform Stations (HAPS): Architecture and System Performance

Yunchou Xing, Frank Hsieh, Amitava Ghosh, Theodore S. Rappaport

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) has the potential to provide global wireless connectivity and data services such as high-speed wireless backhaul, industrial Internet of things (IoT), and public safety for large areas not served by terrestrial networks. A unified HAPS design is desired to support various use cases and a wide range of requirements. In this paper, we present two architecture designs of the HAPS system: i) repeater based HAPS, and ii) base station based HAPS, which are both viable technical solutions. The energy efficiency is analyzed and compared between the two architectures using consumption factor theory. The system performance of these two architectures is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations and is characterized in metrics of spectral efficiency using LTE band 1 for both single-cell and multi-cell cases. Both designs can provide good downlink spectral efficiency and coverage, while the uplink coverage is significantly limited by UE transmit power and antenna gain. Using directional antennas at the UEs can improve the system performance for both downlink and uplink.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2021 IEEE 93rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2021-Spring - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9781728189642
StatePublished - Apr 2021
Event93rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2021-Spring - Virtual, Online
Duration: Apr 25 2021Apr 28 2021

Publication series

NameIEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
ISSN (Print)1550-2252


Conference93rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2021-Spring
CityVirtual, Online


  • 5G
  • High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS)
  • Nonterrestrial Networks (NTN)
  • bent-pipe
  • consumption factor theory
  • path loss
  • regenerative

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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