Objectives: To evaluate peri-implant bone formation of titanium implants using an in vivo rat model with and without uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) to evaluate osseointegration of hydrophobic (Neoporos®) and hydrophilic (Acqua®) surfaces. Materials and methods: 54 rats were divided into two groups: DM group (DMG) (streptozotocin-induced diabetes) and a control group (CG). Implants with hydrophobic (Neoporos®) and hydrophilic surfaces (Acqua®) were placed in the left or right tibia of animals. Animals were further divided into three groups (n = 9) euthanized after 7, 14, or 28 days. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) were assessed in total, cortical, and medullary areas. Results: The DMG group, after a 7-day healing period, yielded with the Acqua implants presented significantly higher total BIC (+37.9%; p=0.03) and trabecular BIC (%) (+46.3%; p=0.02) values in comparison to the Neoporos implants. After 28 days of healing, the CG yielded that the cortical BAFO of Acqua implants to be significantly, 14%, higher (p=0.04) than Neoporos implants. Conclusion: The positive effects of the Acqua surface were able to counteract the adverse impact of uncontrolled DM at early osseointegration periods. After 28 days in vivo, the metabolic systemic impairment caused by DM overcame the surface treatment effect, leading to impaired osseointegration in both hydrophilic and hydrophobic implants. Clinical relevance: The adverse effects of diabetes mellitus with respect to bone healing may be minimized by deploying implants with strategically modified surfaces. This study evaluated the effects of implants with Acqua® and Neoporos® surfaces in both diabetic and healthy animals. During the initial healing period in diabetic animals, the hydrophilic surface was demonstrated to have beneficial effect on osseointegration in comparison to the hydrophobic surface. The results provide an insight into early healing, but the authors suggest that a future short-term and long-term clinical study is needed to assess the possible benefit of the Acqua® implant as well as in increasing the predictability of implant osseointegration.
- Dental implants
- Diabetes mellitus, Hydrophilic surface
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