HIV-1 transmission in injection paraphernalia: Heating drug solutions may inactivate HIV-1

Michael C. Clatts, Robert Heimer, Nadia Abdala, Lloyd A. Goldsamt, Jo L. Sotheran, Kenneth T. Anderson, Toni M. Gallo, Lee D. Hoffer, Pellegrino A. Luciano, Tassos Kyriakides

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In response to recent concerns about risk of HIV-1 transmission from drug injection paraphernalia such as cookers, ethnographic methods were used to develop a descriptive typology of the paraphernalia and practices used to prepare and inject illegal drugs. Observational data were then applied in laboratory studies in which a quantitative HIV-1 microculture assay was used to measure the recovery of infectious HIV-1 in cookers. HIV-1 survival inside cookers was a function of the temperature achieved during preparation of drug solutions; HIV-1 was inactivated once temperature exceeded, on average, 65°C. Although different types of cookers, volumes, and heat sources affected survival times, heating cookers 15 seconds or longer reduced viable HIV-1 below detectable levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)194-199
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 1 1999


  • Drug injection practices
  • Ethnography
  • HIV-1 transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Virology


Dive into the research topics of 'HIV-1 transmission in injection paraphernalia: Heating drug solutions may inactivate HIV-1'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this