Homotypic and Heterotypic Protection and Risk of Reinfection following Natural Norovirus Infection in a Highly Endemic Setting

Preeti Chhabra, Saba Rouhani, Hannah Browne, Pablo Peñataro Yori, Mery Siguas Salas, Maribel Paredes Olortegui, Lawrence H. Moulton, Margaret N. Kosek, Jan Vinjé

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, yet there is limited information on homotypic or heterotypic protection following natural infection to guide vaccine development. Methods: A total of 6020 stools collected from 299 Peruvian children between 2010 and 2014 were tested by norovirus real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence-based genotyping. Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of infection among children with vs without prior exposure. Results: Norovirus was detected in 1288 (21.3%) samples. GII.4 (26%), GII.6 (19%), and GI.3 (9%) viruses accounted for 54% of infections. Homotypic protection for GI.3 (HR, 0.35; P=.015), GI.7 (HR, 0.19; P=.022), GII.4 (HR, 0.39; P<.001), and GII.6 (HR, 0.52; P=.006) infections was observed. Hazard analysis showed that children with prior GII.4 infection exhibited heterotypic protection with a 48% reduction of subsequent GI.3 infection (HR, 0.52; P=.005). Prior exposure to GI.3, GII.2, and GII.17 infections enhanced susceptibility to subsequent infections with several other norovirus genotypes. Conclusions: Children up to 2 years of age infected with GII.4 noroviruses demonstrated both homotypic and heterotypic protection to reinfection with other genotypes. These data support the need for ongoing vaccine development efforts with GII.4 as the main component and caution the inclusion of genotypes that may enhance susceptibility to infections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)222-229
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 15 2021


  • GII.4
  • heterotypic protection
  • homotypic protection
  • norovirus
  • reinfection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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