Household-Based HIV Counseling and Testing as a Platform for Referral to HIV Care and Medical Male Circumcision in Uganda: A Pilot Evaluation

Henry Tumwebaze, Elioda Tumwesigye, Jared M. Baeten, Ann E. Kurth, Jennifer Revall, Pamela M. Murnane, Larry W. Chang, Connie Celum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Combination HIV prevention initiatives incorporate evidence-based, biomedical and behavioral interventions appropriate and acceptable to specific populations, aiming to significantly reduce population-level HIV incidence. Knowledge of HIV serostatus is key to linkages to HIV care and prevention. Household-based HIV counseling and testing (HBCT) can achieve high HIV testing rates. We evaluated HBCT as a platform for delivery of combination HIV prevention services in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We conducted HBCT in a semi-urban area in southwestern Uganda. All adults received standard HIV prevention messaging. Real-time electronic data collection included a brief risk assessment and prevention triage algorithm for referrals of HIV seropositive persons to HIV care and uncircumcised HIV seronegative men with multiple sex partners to male circumcision. Monthly follow-up visits for 3 months were conducted to promote uptake of HIV care and male circumcision. Results: 855 households received HBCT; 1587 of 1941 (81.8%) adults were present at the HBCT visit, 1557 (98.1% of those present) were tested and received HIV results, of whom, 46.5% were men. A total of 152 (9.8%) were HIV seropositive, for whom the median CD4 count was 456 cells/μL, and 50.7% were newly-identified as HIV seropositive. Three months after HBCT, 88.5% of HIV seropositive persons had attended an HIV care clinic; among those with CD4 counts <250 cells/μL, 71.4% initiated antiretroviral therapy. Among 123 HIV seronegative men with an HIV+ partner or multiple partners, 62.0% were circumcised by month 3. Conclusions: HBCT achieves high levels of knowledge of HIV serostatus and is an effective platform for identifying at-risk persons and achieving higher uptake of HIV prevention and care services through referrals and targeted follow-up than has been accomplished through other single focus strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere51620
JournalPloS one
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 24 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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