Studies from a number of laboratories have shown the presence of a factor(s) in whole, parotid, and submandibular human saliva capable of inhibiting HIV-1 infectivity in vitro. Data from our laboratory suggested that the level of anti-HIV-1 activity is higher in submandibular than parotid or whole saliva. Previous results obtained with pooled submandibular saliva from seronegative individuals included a filtration step following saliva- virus interaction. In this article, we present data on the HIV-1-inhibitory activity of individual submandibular saliva samples collected from 15 donors. We show that although anti-HIV activity is quantitatively similar in most individuals (9 of 15), some (4 of 15) are much less active than others and some (2 of 15) lack inhibitory activity. We also show that for most individuals the level of anti-HIV inhibitor is similar with or without a filtration step. However, 2 of the 15 samples demonstrated activity only after filtration. The quantitative and qualitative anti-HIV activity of individual saliva samples appeared to reflect differences in the individual donors. We further show that the anti-HIV activity of submandibular saliva is demonstrated not only against laboratory strains of HIV-1 but is similarly active against three clinical HIV-1 isolates. In contrast, submandibular saliva had little effect on the infectivity of HIV-2 or SIV.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases