Imaging of vascular dynamics within the foot using dynamic diffuse optical tomography to diagnose peripheral arterial disease

M. A. Khalil, H. K. Kim, J. W. Hoi, I. Kim, R. Dayal, G. Shrikande, A. H. Hielscher

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) is the narrowing of the functional area of the artery generally due to atherosclerosis. It affects between 8-12 million people in the United States and if untreated this can lead to ulceration, gangrene and ultimately amputation. The current diagnostic method for PAD is the ankle-brachial index (ABI). The ABI is a ratio of the patient's systolic blood pressure in the foot to that of the brachial artery in the arm, a ratio below 0.9 is indicative of affected vasculature. However, this method is ineffective in patients with calcified arteries (diabetic and end-stage renal failure patients), which falsely elevates the ABI recording resulting in a false negative reading. In this paper we present our results in a pilot study to deduce optical tomography's ability to detect poor blood perfusion in the foot. We performed an IRB approved 30 patient study, where we imaged the feet of the enrolled patients during a five stage dynamic imaging sequence. The patients were split up into three groups: 10 healthy subjects, 10 PAD patients and 10 PAD patients with diabetes and they were imaged while applying a pressure cuff to their thigh. Differences in the magnitude of blood pooling in the foot and rate at which the blood pools in the foot are all indicative of arterial disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOptical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue X
StatePublished - 2013
EventOptical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue X - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 3 2013Feb 6 2013

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


ConferenceOptical Tomography and Spectroscopy of Tissue X
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Peripheral arterial disease
  • diffuse optical tomography
  • dynamic imaging
  • vascular dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Biomaterials


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