Immediate effect of visual, auditory and combined feedback on foot strike pattern

Chutima Phanpho, Smita Rao, Marilyn Moffat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: A growing body of literature supports the promising effect of real-time feedback to re-train runners. However, no studies have comprehensively assessed the effects of foots trike and cadence modification using different forms of real-time feedback provided via wearable devices. Research question: The purpose of the present study was to determine if a change could be made in foot strike pattern and plantar loads using real-time visual, auditory and combined feedback provided using wearable devices. Methods: Visual, auditory and combined feedback were provided using wearable devices as fifteen recreational runners ran on a treadmill at self-selected speed and increased cadence. Plantar loads and location of initial contact were measured with a flexible insole system. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Bonferroni adjusted pair-wise comparisons were used to assess statistical significance. Results and significance: A significant effect of condition was noted on location of center of pressure (p < 0.01). Bonferroni-adjusted post-hoc comparisons showed that feedback conditions differed from baseline as well as the new cadence conditions, however did not differ from each other. A significant interaction effect (region x feedback) was found for plantar loads (maximum force P < 0.001). Significant effects of feedback were noted at the heel (P < 0.001), medial midfoot (P < 0.001), lateral midfoot (P < 0.001), medial forefoot (P = 0.003), central forefoot (P = 0.003), and great toe (P = 0.004) but not at the lateral forefoot (P = 0.6) or lateral toes (P = 0.507). Significance: The unique findings of our study showed that an anterior shift of the center of pressure, particularly when foot strike modification was combined with 10% increased cadence. We found lower heel and midfoot loads along with higher forefoot and great toe loads when foot strike modification using real-time feedback was combined with increased cadence. Our findings also suggest that auditory feedback might be more effective than visual feedback in foot-strike modification.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-217
Number of pages6
JournalGait and Posture
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Cadence
  • Foot strike
  • Plantar loads
  • Running
  • Heel/physiology
  • Humans
  • Wearable Electronic Devices
  • Male
  • Shoes
  • Motor Activity/physiology
  • Running/physiology
  • Young Adult
  • Exercise Test
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Foot/physiology
  • Formative Feedback
  • Weight-Bearing/physiology
  • Adult
  • Female
  • Toes/physiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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