Impedance-Readout Integrated Circuits for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy: Methodological Review

Song I. Cheon, Haidam Choi, Hyoju Kang, Ji Hoon Suh, Seonghyun Park, Soon Jae Kweon, Minkyu Je, Sohmyung Ha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This review article provides a comprehensive overview of impedance-readout integrated circuits (ICs) for electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) applications. The readout IC, a crucial component of on-chip EIS systems, significantly affects key performance metrics of the entire system, such as frequency range, power consumption, accuracy, detection range, and throughput. With the growing demand for portable, wearable, and implantable EIS systems in the Internet-of-Things (IoT) era, achieving high energy efficiency while maintaining a wide frequency range, high accuracy, wide dynamic range, and high throughput has become a focus of research. Furthermore, to enhance the miniaturization and convenience of EIS systems, many emerging systems utilize two-electrode or dry electrode configurations instead of the conventional four-electrode configuration with wet electrodes for impedance measurement. In response to these trends, various technologies have been developed to ensure reliable operations even at two- or dry-electrode interfaces. This article reviews the principles, advantages, and disadvantages of techniques employed in state-of-the-art impedance-readout ICs, aiming to achieve high energy efficiency, wide frequency range, high accuracy, wide dynamic range, low noise, high throughput, and/or high input impedance. The thorough review of these advancements will provide valuable insights into the future development of impedance-readout ICs and systems for IoT and biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)215-232
Number of pages18
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • Accuracy
  • bio-impedance
  • demodulation
  • dynamic range
  • electrode
  • frequency range
  • impedance
  • measurement speed
  • noise
  • power consumption
  • spectroscopy
  • throughput

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering


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