Implementation of clean cookstove interventions and its effects on blood pressure in low-income and middle-income countries: Systematic review

Deborah Onakomaiya, Joyce Gyamfi, Juliet Iwelunmor, Jumoke Opeyemi, Mofetoluwa Oluwasanmi, Chisom Obiezu-Umeh, Milena Dalton, Ucheoma Nwaozuru, Temitope Ojo, Dorice Vieira, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Christopher Olopade

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective A review of the implementation outcomes of clean cookstove use, and its effects on blood pressure (BP) in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design Systematic review of studies that reported the effect of clean cookstove use on BP among women, and implementation science outcomes in LMICs. Data sources We searched PubMed, Embase, INSPEC, Scielo, Cochrane Library, Global Health and Web of Science PLUS. We conducted searches in November 2017 with a repeat in May 2018. We did not restrict article publication date. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies We included only studies conducted in LMICs, published in English, regardless of publication year and studies that examined the use of improved or clean cookstove intervention on BP. Two authors independently screened journal article titles, abstracts and full-Text articles to identify those that included the following search terms: high BP, hypertension and or household air pollution, LMICs, cookstove and implementation outcomes. Results Of the 461 non-duplicate articles identified, three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (in Nigeria, Guatemala and Ghana) and two studies of pre-post design (in Bolivia and Nicaragua) met eligibility criteria. These articles evaluated the effect of cookstove use on BP in women. Two of the three RCTs reported a mean reduction in diastolic BP of-2.8 mm Hg (-5.0,-0.6; p=0.01) for the Nigerian study;-3.0 mm Hg; (-5.7,-0.4; p=0.02) for the Guatemalan study; while the study conducted in Ghana reported a non-significant change in BP. The pre-post studies reported a significant reduction in mean systolic BP of-5.5 mm Hg; (p=0.01) for the Bolivian study, and-5.9 mm Hg (-11.3,-0.4; p=0.05) for the Nicaraguan study. Implementation science outcomes were reported in all five studies (three reported feasibility, one reported adoption and one reported feasibility and adoption of cookstove interventions). Conclusion Although this review demonstrated that there is limited evidence on the implementation of clean cookstove use in LMICs, the effects of clean cookstove on BP were significant for both systolic and diastolic BP among women. Future studies should consider standardised reporting of implementation outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere026517
JournalBMJ open
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2019


  • cookstoves
  • high blood pressure
  • household air pollution
  • implementation science outcomes
  • intervention studies
  • low and middle income countries

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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