Implementation Outcomes for the SLUMBER Sleep Improvement Program in Long-Term Care

Joshua Chodosh, Mary Cadogan, Abraham A. Brody, Michael N. Mitchell, Diana E. Hernandez, Michael Mangold, Cathy A. Alessi, Yeonsu Song, Jennifer L. Martin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: To describe the implementation of a mentored staff-delivered sleep program in nursing facilities. Design: Modified stepped-wedge unit-level intervention. Setting and Participants: This program was implemented in 2 New York City nursing facilities, with partial implementation (due to COVID-19) in a third facility. Methods: Expert mentors provided staff webinars, in-person workshops, and weekly sleep pearls via text messaging. We used the integrated Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (i-PARiHS) framework as a post hoc approach to describe key elements of the SLUMBER implementation. We measured staff participation in unit-level procedures and noted their commentary during unit workshops. Results: We completed SLUMBER within 5 units across 2 facilities and held 15 leadership meetings before and during program implementation. Sessions on each unit included 3 virtual webinar presentations and 4 in-person workshops for each nursing shift, held over a period of 3 to 4 months. Staff attendance averaged >3 sessions per individual staff member. Approximately 65% of staff present on each unit participated in any given session. Text messaging was useful for engagement, educational reinforcement, and encouraging attendance. We elevated staff as experts in the care of their residents as a strategy for staff engagement and behavior change and solicited challenging cases from staff during workshops to provide strategies to address resident behavior and encourage adoption when successful. Conclusions and Implications: Engaging staff, leadership, residents, and family of nursing facilities in implementing a multicomponent sleep quality improvement program is feasible for improving nursing facilities’ sleep environment. The program required gaining trust at multiple levels through presence and empathy, and reinforcement mechanisms (primarily text messages). To improve scalability, SLUMBER could evolve from an interdisciplinary investigator-based approach to internal coaches in a train-the-trainer model to effectively and sustainably implement this program to improve sleep quality for facility residents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)932-938.e1
JournalJournal of the American Medical Directors Association
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2024


  • Sleep
  • depression
  • implementation
  • quality improvement
  • skilled nursing facilities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing
  • Health Policy
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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