With diabetes being the 7th leading cause of death worldwide, overcoming issues limiting the oral administration of insulin is of global significance. The development of imine-linked-covalent organic framework (nCOF) nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery to overcome these delivery barriers is herein reported. A gastro-resistant nCOF was prepared from layered nanosheets with insulin loaded between the nanosheet layers. The insulin-loaded nCOF exhibited insulin protection in digestive fluids in vitro as well as glucose-responsive release, and this hyperglycemia-induced release was confirmed in vivo in diabetic rats without noticeable toxic effects. This is strong evidence that nCOF-based oral insulin delivery systems could replace traditional subcutaneous injections easing insulin therapy.
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