Intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) administration increases bone formation and bone mass and is being used as a therapy for osteoporosis. By contrast, chronic hyperparathyroidism results in the metabolic bone disease osteitis fibrosa characterized by local bone resorption and peritrabecular bone marrow fibrosis in humans. The animal models that can mimic the paradoxical effects of PTH provide the basis for further study of the functions of this hormone in skeletal tissues. In both rats and mice, the anabolic effects of PTH on bone can be achieved by daily injections subcutaneously and the catabolic effects can be achieved by continuous infusion with osmotic pumps. This chapter offers detailed informa tion, such as the dosage and preparation of PTH, using the example of treatment of rats with PTH intermittently or continuously. High-quality, RT-PCR ready RNA is required for the analysis of gene expression. For the analysis of gene expression in bone, usually long bones are used for RNA extraction. Here we describe how to extract RNAs from the metaphyseal trabecular primary spongiosa of rat femur by a method based on two commercially available kits. This protocol can be used in other tissues with slight modification of the amount of reagent used according to the tissue size.