Inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by nonoxynol-9, C31G, or an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate

Fred C. Krebs, Shendra R. Miller, Daniel Malamud, Mary K. Howett, Brian Wigdahl

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    A highly desirable approach to prevention of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission during sexual intercourse is the development of nontoxic, topical, broad spectrum microbicides effective against transmission of cell-associated and cell-free virus. Toward this end, the HIV-1 inactivation potential of surface active agents C31G and an alkyl sulfate, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was assessed. Because of its extensive use as a microbicidal agent, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) was used as a reference against which C31G and SDS were compared. Viral inactivation was measured using HIV-1 LTR-β-galactosidase indicator cells (expressing CD4 or CD4/CCR5) derived from HeLa cells, a cell line of human cervical adenocarcinoma origin. In experiments which examined inactivation of cell-free HIV-1, C31G was generally more effective than N-9. Viral inactivation by SDS occurred at twice the concentration necessary to achieve similar levels of inactivation using either N-9 or C31G. Using HeLa and HeLa-derived cells in cytotoxicity studies, it was demonstrated that SDS is as much as 11 and five times less cytotoxic than N-9 or C31G, respectively, during 48 h of continuous exposure. SDS (unlike C31G and N-9) can inactivate non-enveloped viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) [Howett, M.K., Neely, E.B., Christensen, N.D., Wigdahl, B., Krebs, F.C., Malamud, D., Patrick, S.D., Pickel, M.D., Welsh, P.A., Reed, C.A., Ward, M.G., Budgeon, L.R., Kreider, J.W., 1999. A broad-spectrum microbicide with virucidal activity against sexually transmitted viruses. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 43(2), 314-321]. Since addition of SDS to C31G or N-9 may make the resulting microbicidal mixtures broadly effective against both enveloped and non-enveloped viruses, several surface active agent combinations were evaluated for their abilities to inactivate HIV-1. Addition of SDS to either C31G or N-9 resulted in mixtures that were only slightly less effective than equivalent concentrations of C31G or N-9 alone. To investigate inactivation of cell-associated infectivity, HIV-1 IIIB-infected SupT1 cells were treated with N-9, C31G, or SDS. Inactivation of cell-associated infectivity required higher microbicide concentrations than were needed for inactivation of cell-free virus. However, the relative activities of N-9, C31G, or SDS were similar to those seen in assays of inactivation using cell-free virus. These studies suggest that C31G and SDS may be attractive candidates for human trials as topical microbicides effective against HIV-1 transmission since both function at concentrations that provide effective viral inactivation with low levels of cytotoxicity. SDS microbicides (used alone or with other microbicides) may provide the added advantage of protection from HPV infection. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)157-173
    Number of pages17
    JournalAntiviral Research
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - Oct 1999


    • C31G
    • Human immunodeficiency virus
    • MAGI assay
    • N-9
    • SDS
    • Vaginal microbicide

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Pharmacology
    • Virology


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