Inactivation of viruses in red cell and platelet concentrates with aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) sulfonates

B. Horowitz, S. Rywkin, H. Margolis-Nunno, B. Williams, N. Geacintov, A. M. Prince, D. Pascual, G. Ragno, C. R. Valeri, T. Huima-Byron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonates (AlPcS) are photoactive compounds with absorption maxima at 665-675 nm. The inactivation of viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, VSV; human immunodeficiency virus, HIV) added to either whole blood or red blood cell concentrates (RBCC) and platelet concentrates (PC) on treatment with tetrasulfonated AlPc (AlPcS4) was evaluated. Treatment of RBCC with 10 μM AlPcS4 and 44 J/cm2 visible light resulted in the inactivation of ≥ 105.5 infectious doses (TCID50) of cell-free VSV, ≥ 105.6 TCID50 of cell-associated VSV, and ≥ 104.7 TCID50 of cell-free sindbis virus. Both ≥ 104.2 TCID50 of cell-free and ≥ 103.6 TCID50 of cell-associated forms of HIV were also shown to be inactivated. Encephalomyocarditis virus, used as a model for nonenveloped viruses, was not inactivated. Equivalent virus kill with Photofrin II required a substantially higher concentration of dye and longer exposure to visible light. Following AlPcS4 treatment, red cell integrity was well maintained as judged by the low level (< 2%) of hemoglobin release immediately following treatment and on subsequent storage, by measurements of erythrocyte osmotic fragility, and by the normal recovery and circulatory survival on infusion of treated, autologous red blood cells in baboons. Treatment of PC with 10 μM AlPcS4 and 44 J/cm2 visible light also resulted in effective virus kill (≥ 105.5 TCID50) of VSV; however, both the rate and extent of platelet aggregation in response to collagen addition declined by at least 50%. Based on these results, further characterization of AlPcS4-treated RBCC is justified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)141-150
Number of pages10
JournalBlood Cells
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1992


  • AIDS
  • Baboons
  • HIV
  • Phthalocyanine
  • Platelet
  • Red blood cells
  • Virus inactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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