Incompressible active phases at an interface. Part 1. Formulation and axisymmetric odd flows

Leroy L. Jia, William T.M. Irvine, Michael J. Shelley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Inspired by the recent realization of a two-dimensional (2-D) chiral fluid as an active monolayer droplet moving atop a 3-D Stokesian fluid, we formulate mathematically its free-boundary dynamics. The surface droplet is described as a general 2-D linear, incompressible and isotropic fluid, having a viscous shear stress, an active chiral driving stress and a Hall stress allowed by the lack of time-reversal symmetry. The droplet interacts with itself through its driven internal mechanics and by driving flows in the underlying 3-D Stokes phase. We pose the dynamics as the solution to a singular integral-differential equation, over the droplet surface, using the mapping from surface stress to surface velocity for the 3-D Stokes equations. Specializing to the case of axisymmetric droplets, exact representations for the chiral surface flow are given in terms of solutions to a singular integral equation, solved using both analytical and numerical techniques. For a disc-shaped monolayer, we additionally employ a semi-analytical solution that hinges on an orthogonal basis of Bessel functions and allows for efficient computation of the monolayer velocity field, which ranges from a nearly solid-body rotation to a unidirectional edge current, depending on the subphase depth and the Saffman-Delbrück length. Except in the near-wall limit, these solutions have divergent surface shear stresses at droplet boundaries, a signature of systems with codimension-one domains embedded in a 3-D medium. We further investigate the effect of a Hall viscosity, which couples radial and transverse surface velocity components, on the dynamics of a closing cavity. Hall stresses are seen to drive inward radial motion, even in the absence of edge tension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberA36
JournalJournal of Fluid Mechanics
Volume951
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 25 2022

Keywords

  • active matter
  • Stokesian dynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics

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