Purpose: The purpose of this project was to evaluate a novel technique for inducing osteogenesis through periosteal distraction in a rabbit model. Materials and Methods: A periosteal distraction device was rigidly fixed to the lateral surface of the mandible in 10 adult rabbits. Periosteal distraction was started 7 days after placement of the periosteal distraction device. The periosteum was distracted 7 mm over 15 days. The unoperated, contralateral side of the mandible served as the control. The animals were killed at postoperative days 28, 35, 42, and 56. The specimens were then fixed, decalcified, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histologic examination and histomorphometric analysis were performed on all specimens. Results: Nine of 10 periosteal distraction devices remained rigidly fixed to the lateral surface of the mandible. On postoperative day 28, the histologic specimen from the experimental side showed periosteal proliferation and an increase in the number of osteoblasts. On postoperative days 35, 42, and 56, the experimental side showed an increase in the number of osteocytes per unit area, collagen fibers parallel to the vector of distraction, islands of osteoblasts surrounded by newly formed bone, and maturation of bone. An average of 2.86 ± 0.56 mm of new bone height was formed. Conclusion: We report on a novel technique for generating bone by periosteal distraction. Our histologic analysis showed proliferation of the periosteum, an increase in the number of osteoblasts and osteogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery