BACKGROUND: Child appetite traits (ATs) are associated with later child weight and obesity risk. Less research has focused on ATs in low-income Hispanic children or included longitudinal associations with infant weight.
OBJECTIVE: To determine stability of ATs during infancy and childhood and their relationship with subsequent weight and obesity risk at age 3 years among low-income Hispanic children.
DESIGN: A secondary longitudinal analysis of data from the Starting Early Program randomized controlled obesity prevention trial.
PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: Three hundred twenty-two low-income, Hispanic mother-child pairs enrolled between 2012 and 2014 in a public hospital in New York City.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ATs, including Slowness in Eating, Satiety Responsiveness, Food Responsiveness, and Enjoyment of Food were assessed using the Baby and Child Eating Behavior Questionnaires at ages 3 months, 2 years, and 3 years. Main outcome measures were child standardized weight-for-age z score (WFAz) and obesity risk (WFA≥95th percentile) at age 3 years.
STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: AT stability was assessed using correlations and multilevel modeling. Linear and logistic regression analyses examined associations between ATs and child WFAz and obesity risk at age 3 years.
RESULTS: There was limited stability for all ATs measured over time. During infancy, Slowness in Eating was associated with lower 3-year WFAz (B = -0.18, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.04; P = 0.01). At age 2 years, Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness were associated with lower WFAz (B = -0.29, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.12; P < 0.01; B = -0.36, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; P < 0.01) and obesity risk (adjusted odds ratio 0.49, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.85; adjusted odds ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.99) at 3 years. Increased Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness over time were associated with lower 3-year WFAz (B = -0.74, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.2 [Slowness in Eating]; B = -1.19, 95% CI -1.87 to -0.52 [Satiety Responsiveness], both P values = 0.001). Higher Enjoyment of Food over time was associated with higher 3-year WFAz (B = 0.62, 95% CI 0.24 to 1.01; P = 0.002).
CONCLUSIONS: Infants with lower Slowness in Eating and Satiety Responsiveness may have higher levels of obesity risk and need more tailored approaches to nutrition counseling and obesity prevention.
- Appetite traits
- Childhood obesity
- Satiety Response
- Child, Preschool
- Feeding Behavior/ethnology
- New York City
- Multilevel Analysis
- Odds Ratio
- Pediatric Obesity/ethnology
- Risk Assessment
- Risk Factors
- Hispanic or Latino/psychology
- Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
- Regression Analysis
- Child Behavior/ethnology
- Longitudinal Studies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science
- Nutrition and Dietetics