Influence of interlayer design on residual thermal stresses in trilayered and graded all-ceramic restorations

Bruno Henriques, Douglas Fabris, Júlio C.M. Souza, Filipe S. Silva, Joana Mesquita-Guimarães, Yu Zhang, Márcio Fredel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Residual thermal stresses are formed in dental restorations during cooling from high temperature processing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of constructive design variables (composition and interlayer thickness) on residual stresses in alumina- and zirconia-graded restorations. Restorations' real-like cooling conditions were simulated using finite elements method and temperature-dependent material properties were used. Three different designs were evaluated: a bilayered restoration (sharp transition between materials); a trilayered restoration with a homogenous interlayer between core and veneer; and a trilayered restoration with a graded interlayer. The interlayer thickness and composition were varied. Zirconia restorations presented overall higher thermal stress values than alumina ones. Thermal stresses were significantly reduced by the presence of a homogeneous interlayer. The composition of the interlayer showed great influence on the thermal stresses, with the best results for homogeneous interlayers being observed for porcelain contents in the composite ranging between 30%–50% (vol.%), for both alumina and zirconia restorations. The interlayer's thickness showed a minor contribution in the thermal stress reduction. The graded interlayer showed an optimized reduction in restorations' thermal stresses. The use of graded interlayer, favoring enhanced thermal stress distributions and lower magnitude is expected to reduce the risk of catastrophic failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1037-1045
Number of pages9
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering C
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • Alumina
  • Feldspar-based porcelain
  • Graded ceramics
  • Thermal residual stresses
  • Zirconia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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