Inhibition of HIV infectivity by human saliva

D. Malamud, T. Nagashunmugam, C. Davis, S. Kennedy, W. R. Abrams, R. Kream, H. M. Friedman

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    OBJECTIVE: Human saliva is known to decrease HIV infectivity in vitro. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and to focus on the mechanism of action of these salivary factor(s). DESIGN: A number of viruses and several assay systems have been utilized to determine if the effect of submandibular saliva is directly on the virus, on the host cell, or on the virus-cell interaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Submandibular saliva from seronegative donors was incubated with HIV-1 other retroviruses, or unrelated viruses. Viral infectivity was monitored either by determining p24 antigen levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or SupTI cells, or using HeLa cells expressing CD4 and an HIV derived long terminal repeat linked to the β-galactosidase gene. RESULTS: The inhibition of viral infectivity by submandibular saliva is specific for HIV-1. While inhibition increases with time of incubation of saliva with virus, pretreatment of cells with saliva does not inhibit HIV production, and saliva has only modest inhibitory effects when added to HIV-infected cells. CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the effect of submandibular saliva on decreasing the infectivity of HIV-1 is directly on the virus, rather than on the host cell.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)S58-S63
    JournalOral Diseases
    Issue numberSUPPL. 1
    StatePublished - May 1997


    • HIV
    • Saliva
    • Submandibular gland

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Otorhinolaryngology
    • General Dentistry


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