Insulin-like genes in ascidians: Findings in Ciona and hypotheses on the evolutionary origins of the pancreas

Jordan M. Thompson, Anna Di Gregorio

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Insulin plays an extensively characterized role in the control of sugar metabolism, growth and homeostasis in a wide range of organisms. In vertebrate chordates, insulin is mainly produced by the beta cells of the endocrine pancreas, while in non-chordate animals insulin-producing cells are mainly found in the nervous system and/or scattered along the digestive tract. However, recent studies have indicated the notochord, the defining feature of the chordate phylum, as an additional site of expression of insulin-like peptides. Here we show that two of the three insulin-like genes identified in Ciona intestinalis, an invertebrate chordate with a dual life cycle, are first expressed in the developing notochord during embryogenesis and transition to distinct areas of the adult digestive tract after metamorphosis. In addition, we present data suggesting that the transcription factor Ciona Brachyury is involved in the control of notochord expression of at least one of these genes, Ciona insulin-like 2. Finally, we review the information currently available on insulin-producing cells in ascidians and on pancreas-related transcription factors that might control their expression. genesis 53:82-104, 2015.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)82-104
Number of pages23
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015


  • Ascidian
  • Brachyury
  • Ciona
  • Insulin
  • Notochord
  • Pancreas
  • Transcription factor
  • cis-regulatory module

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Endocrinology
  • Cell Biology


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