Liver IGF-1 deficient (LID) mice demonstrate a 75% reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels and a corresponding fourfold increase in growth hormone (GH) levels. At 16 weeks of age, LID mice demonstrate, using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, insulin insensitivity in muscle, liver, and fat tissues. In contrast, mice with a gene deletion of the acid-labile subunit (ALSKO) demonstrate a 65% reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels, with normal GH levels and no signs of insulin resistance. To further clarify the relative roles of increased GH and decreased IGF-1 levels in the development of insulin resistance, we crossed the two mouse lines and created a double knockout mouse (LID+ ALSKO). LID+ALSKO mice demonstrate a further reduction in circulating IGF-1 levels (85%) and a concomitant 10-fold increase in GH levels. Insulin tolerance tests showed an improvement in insulin responsiveness in the LID+ALSKO mice compared with controls; LID mice were very insulin insensitive. Surprisingly, insulin sensitivity, while improved in white adipose tissue and in muscle, was unchanged in the liver. The lack of improvement in liver insulin sensitivity may reflect the absence of IGF-1 receptors or increased triglyceride levels in the liver. The present study suggests that whereas GH plays a major role in inducing insulin resistance, IGF-1 may have a direct modulatory role.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism