Inter-Relations Between Ethnic-Racial Discrimination and Ethnic-Racial Identity Among Early Adolescents

Juan Del Toro, Diane Hughes, Niobe Way

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The authors examined whether the longitudinal inter-relations between ethnic-racial discrimination and ethnic-racial identity vary according to the perpetrator of discrimination. The authors used three waves of data from early adolescents (n = 387; ages 11–12 at Wave 1) to assess the strength and direction of relations between perceived discrimination from non-school adults and peers vis-à-vis ethnic-racial identity exploration, commitment, private regard, and public regard. Cross-lagged autoregressive path analyses showed that more frequent discrimination, regardless of source, had reciprocal and significant longitudinal inter-relations with exploration and public regard. Peer discrimination predicted lower commitment and private regard 1 year later, whereas non-school adult discrimination did not. Implications are discussed in relation to the role of peers and ethnic-racial identity processes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e106-e125
JournalChild development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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