Interim Analysis of Clinical Outcomes with Open versus Closed Conjunctival Implantation of the XEN45 Gel Stent

Elyse J. McGlumphy, Anna Do, Amy Du, Earl Randy Craven, Lawrence S. Geyman, Leo Shen, Joel S. Schuman, Joseph F. Panarelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine the longitudinal postoperative outcomes of open versus closed conjunctiva implantation of the XEN45 gel stent. Design: Retrospective multicenter study. Subjects: One hundred ninety-three patients with glaucoma underwent XEN45 implantation via an open or closed conjunctiva approach. Methods: Data on patient demographics; diagnoses; preoperative and postoperative clinical data; outcome measures, including intraocular pressure (IOP); use of glaucoma medications; visual acuity; and complications were collected. Statistical analyses were performed with P < 0.05 as significant. Main Outcome Measures: Failure was defined as < 20% reduction in IOP from the medicated baseline or a IOP of > 21 mmHg at 2 consecutive visits at postoperative month 1 and beyond, the need for subsequent operative intervention or additional glaucoma surgery, or a catastrophic event, such as loss of light perception. Eyes that had not failed by these criteria and were not on glaucoma medications were considered complete successes. Overall success was defined as those who achieved success either with or without topical medications. Results: Patients were followed for an average of 17 months. Complete success was achieved in 42.5% and 24.7% of the open and closed groups, respectively (P = 0.01). Overall success was achieved in 64.2% and 37.0% of the open and closed groups, respectively (P < 0.001) at the last follow-up. Bleb needling was performed in 12.4% of eyes in the open group compared with 40% of eyes in the closed group. An IOP spike of ≥ 10 mmHg was twice as likely to occur in the closed group compared with the open group during the postoperative period (40% vs. 18%; P = 0.001). Conclusions: Implantation of XEN45 with opening of the conjunctiva resulted in a lower IOP with greater success and lower needling rate compared with those achieved with the closed conjunctiva technique. Similar rates of postoperative complications and vision loss were noted in each group. Although both procedures provide substantial IOP reduction, the open technique appears to result in higher success rates and fewer postoperative interventions. Financial Disclosure(s): Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found in the Footnotes and Disclosures at the end of this article.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-122
Number of pages7
JournalOphthalmology Glaucoma
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024


  • Gel Stent
  • Glaucoma
  • MIGS
  • Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery
  • XEN

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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