Inventory of School Supports-Youth Report (ISS-YR): Development and Validation with Military-Connected Students

Jake C. Steggerda, Timothy A. Cavell, Alison L. Drew, Juliann H. Nicholson, Carla Herrera, Debby Gaffney, Amy M. Smith Slep, Renée Spencer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This study describes the development of a 12-item inventory of school supports for military-connected (MC) children. Participants were 444 students (grades 3 or 5) with an active-duty military parent (48% female; 57.3% White, 10.7% Black, 6.2% Native American, 5% Asian, 3.3% Pacific Islander, 17.5% bi/multiracial; 19% Latinx). Youth completed the Inventory of School Supports-Youth Report (ISS-YR) and measures of academic efficacy, parental involvement in school, school connectedness, and whether they had a non-parental supportive adult in their life. Parents reported on parent–teacher relationship quality. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor model (functional and relational support). Results psychometrically supported the ISS-YR. Scores demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability. Results also supported the measure’s convergent and criterion validity as evidenced by positive associations with school connectedness, academic efficacy, parental school involvement, and parent–teacher relationship quality. Youth with a supportive adult in their life at and outside of school had the highest ISS-YR scores. Implications of these findings for schools’ efforts to support MC students are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-238
Number of pages14
JournalSchool Mental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 2024


  • Education
  • Measurement
  • Military children
  • School connectedness
  • School supports

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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