Is reliability obsolete? A commentary on "are simple gain scores obsolete?"

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Williams & Zimmerman (1996) provided much-needed clarification on the reliability of gain scores. This commentary translates these ideas into recognizable patterns of change that tend to produce reliable or unreliable gain scores. It also questions the relevance of the traditional idea of reliability to the measurement of change.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)289-292
Number of pages4
JournalApplied Psychological Measurement
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1996


  • Change scores
  • Classical test theory
  • Difference scores
  • Gain scores
  • Intraindividual differences
  • Measurement of growth
  • Reliability
  • Test theory
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)

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