Iterative water-filling for load-balancing in wireless LAN or microcellular networks

Jeremy K. Chen, Theodore S. Rappaport, Gustavo De Veciana

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


This paper presents an efficient iterative load-balancing algorithm for time and bandwidth allocation among access points (APs) and users subject to heterogeneous fairness and application requirements. The algorithm can be carried out either at a central network switch with site-specific propagation predictions, or in a decentralized manner. The algorithm converges to maximum network resource utilization from any starting point, and usually converges in 3 to 9 iterations in various network conditions including users joining, leaving, and moving within a network and various network sizes. Such a fast convergence allows real-time implementations of our algorithm. Simulation results show that our algorithm has merits over other schemes especially when users exhibit clustered patterns: Our algorithm, when assuming multiple radios at each user, achieves 48% gain of median throughput as compared with the max-min fair load-balancing scheme (also with the multi-radio assumption) while losing 14% of fairness index; we also achieve 26% gain of median throughput and 52% gain of fairness index over the Strongest-Signal-First scheme (which assumes each user has only a single radio). When only a single radio is used, our algorithm is similar to the max-min fairness scheme, and is still better than SSF with 44% gain of 25-percentile throughput and 37% gain of fairness index.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2006 IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2006-Spring - Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)0780393929, 9780780393929
StatePublished - 2006
Event2006 IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2006-Spring - Melbourne, Australia
Duration: May 7 2006Jul 10 2006

Publication series

NameIEEE Vehicular Technology Conference
ISSN (Print)1550-2252


Other2006 IEEE 63rd Vehicular Technology Conference, VTC 2006-Spring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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