Large-Scale Modeling of Preshaking Effect on Liquefaction Resistance, Shear Wave Velocity, and CPT Tip Resistance of Clean Sand

R. Dobry, S. Thevanayagam, W. El-Sekelly, T. Abdoun, Q. Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The effect of preshaking and repeated liquefaction on liquefaction resistance was studied in a large-scale shaking table experiment, in which a sequence of 51 shakings was applied to the base of a 5-m uniform deposit of saturated clean Ottawa sand. Three event types were used in a very intense repeated pattern: mild preshaking Events A, stronger preshaking Events B, and extensive liquefaction Events C, with each Event C typically liquefying most or all of the deposit. Relative density, cone penetration test (CPT) tip resistance, and liquefaction resistance to Events A and B were found to increase significantly throughout the 51-shaking sequence, with the shear wave velocity (Vs) increasing slightly. However, the CPT tip resistance and liquefaction resistance decreased temporarily after each Event C, recovering rapidly with additional preshaking - presumably due to a decrease and subsequent increase in the soil lateral stresses. The results for the different shakings were compared with available CPT- and Vs-based field liquefaction charts, with and without accounting for the fact that the soil deposit was much younger than the case histories covered by the charts (age factor). The liquefaction response for Events A, B, and C was reasonably well predicted by the CPT chart when the age factor was considered, including Events A immediately after liquefaction by an Event C. The implications of the research were discussed for the geologic age, preshaking and liquefaction effects observed in the field, including reliquefaction response of the same site by milder aftershocks after the main earthquake shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number04019065
JournalJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Environmental Science
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology


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