Learning and memory in invertebrates: Mollusks

C. M. Sherff, T. J. Carew

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEntry for encyclopedia/dictionary


Mollusks exhibit several forms of memory that are commonly observed in higher invertebrates and vertebrate species. These animals provide powerful experimental systems for examining the cellular and molecular mechanisms of memory, because observations at the behavioral level can often be linked directly to cellular and molecular changes in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we focus on three molluskan species that have made significant contributions to our understanding of mechanisms of learning and memory: Aplysia, Hermissenda, and Lymnaea. While each species exhibits diverse forms of memory in different response systems, striking similarities emerge in the molecular mechanisms that are engaged in memory formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Neuroscience
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Number of pages8
ISBN (Print)9780080450469
StatePublished - 2009


  • Aplysia
  • Associative conditioning
  • CREB
  • Classical conditioning
  • Excitability
  • Facilitation
  • Hermissenda
  • Lymnaea
  • MAPK
  • Memory
  • Mollusk
  • Nonassociative conditioning
  • Operant conditioning
  • PKA
  • PKC
  • Reflex
  • Sensitization
  • Transcription
  • Translation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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