Learning disability, school achievement, and grade retention among children with cleft: A two-center study

Hillary L. Broder, Lynn C. Richman, Pamela B. Matheson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: This study examined the prevalence of learning disability (LD), level of school achievement; and prevalence of grade retention by type of cleft and gender at two craniofacial centers. Setting: The setting included two university-based craniofacial centers. Design/Patients: Participants included 84 consecutively evaluated patients from one center who were matched by cleft type, age, and gender with 84 patients evaluated at the second center. Outcomes: The outcomes Included learning disability, school achievement, and grade retention. Results: The results revealed that 46% of subjects with cleft had LD, 47% had deficient educational progress, and 27% had repeated a grade (excluding kindergarten) in school. Males with cleft palate only (CPO) had a significantly higher rate of LD than any other subject group. Males with CPO and females with cleft lip and palate (CLP) were more likely to repeat a grade in school than were females with CPO and males with CLP. Conclusions: Children with cleft are at risk for learning disability, low school achievement, and grade retention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)127-131
Number of pages5
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 1998



  • Cleft lip
  • Cleft lip and palate
  • Cleft palate
  • Grade retention
  • Learning disability
  • School achievement
  • School progress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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