Learning fast, accurate, and stable closures of a kinetic theory of an active fluid

Suryanarayana Maddu, Scott Weady, Michael J. Shelley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Important classes of active matter systems can be modeled using kinetic theories. However, kinetic theories can be high dimensional and challenging to simulate. Reduced-order representations based on tracking only low-order moments of the kinetic model serve as an efficient alternative, but typically require closure assumptions to model unrepresented higher-order moments. In this study, we present a learning framework based on neural networks that exploits rotational symmetries in the closure terms to learn accurate closure models directly from kinetic simulations. The data-driven closures demonstrate excellent a-priori predictions comparable to the state-of-the-art Bingham closure. We provide a systematic comparison between different neural network architectures and demonstrate that nonlocal effects can be safely ignored to model the closure terms. We develop an active learning strategy that enables accurate prediction of the closure terms across the entire parameter space using a single neural network without the need for retraining. We also propose a data-efficient training procedure based on time-stepping constraints and a differentiable pseudo-spectral solver, which enables the learning of stable closures suitable for a-posteriori inference. The coarse-grained simulations equipped with data-driven closure models faithfully reproduce the mean velocity statistics, scalar order parameters, and velocity power spectra observed in simulations of the kinetic theory. Our differentiable framework also facilitates the estimation of parameters in coarse-grained descriptions conditioned on data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number112869
JournalJournal of Computational Physics
StatePublished - May 2024


  • Active fluids
  • Closure modeling
  • Data-driven modeling
  • Multiscale modeling
  • Neural networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Numerical Analysis
  • Modeling and Simulation
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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