LED-based characterization of solar cells for underwater applications

Alice Zhang, B. Edward Sartor, Jason A. Röhr, André D. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Improved solar energy harvesting in aquatic environments would allow for superior environmental monitoring. However, developing underwater solar cells is challenging as evaluation typically requires deployment in the field or in large water tanks that can simulate aquatic light conditions. Here, we present a protocol to test underwater solar cells using a light-emitting diode (LED)-based characterization technique usable in a typical laboratory setting. We describe steps for installing and running Python code, matching LEDs to irradiance, characterizing underwater solar cells, and calculating underwater solar cell efficiency. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Röhr et al.1

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102833
JournalSTAR Protocols
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 15 2024


  • Energy
  • Physics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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