Long-acting buprenorphine vs. naltrexone opioid treatments in CJS-involved adults (EXIT-CJS)

Elizabeth Needham Waddell, Sandra A. Springer, Lisa A. Marsch, David Farabee, Robert P. Schwartz, Amesika Nyaku, Rusty Reeves, Keith Goldfeld, Ryan D. McDonald, Mia Malone, Anna Cheng, Elizabeth C. Saunders, Laura Monico, Jan Gryczynski, Kathleen Bell, Kasey Harding, Sandra Violette, Thomas Groblewski, Wendy Martin, Kasey TalonNicole Beckwith, Andrew Suchocki, Randy Torralva, Jennifer P. Wisdom, Joshua D. Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The EXIT-CJS (N = 1005) multisite open-label randomized controlled trial will compare retention and effectiveness of extended-release buprenorphine (XR-B) vs. extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) to treat opioid use disorder (OUD) among criminal justice system (CJS)-involved adults in six U.S. locales (New Jersey, New York City, Delaware, Oregon, Connecticut, and New Hampshire). With a pragmatic, noninferiority design, this study hypothesizes that XR-B (n = 335) will be noninferior to XR-NTX (n = 335) in retention-in-study-medication treatment (the primary outcome), self-reported opioid use, opioid-positive urine samples, opioid overdose events, and CJS recidivism. In addition, persons with OUD not eligible or interested in the RCT will be recruited into an enhanced treatment as usual arm (n = 335) to examine usual care outcomes in a quasi-experimental observational cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number108389
JournalJournal of Substance Abuse Treatment
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Buprenorphine
  • Criminal justice
  • Injection
  • Medication treatment
  • Naltrexone
  • Opioid use disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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