Low-energy calibration of XENON1T with an internal 37 Ar source

XENON Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A low-energy electronic recoil calibration of XENON1T, a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber, with an internal 37 Ar source was performed. This calibration source features a 35-day half-life and provides two mono-energetic lines at 2.82 keV and 0.27 keV. The photon yield and electron yield at 2.82 keV are measured to be (32.3±0.3) photons/keV and (40.6±0.5) electrons/keV, respectively, in agreement with other measurements and with NEST predictions. The electron yield at 0.27 keV is also measured and it is (68.0-3.7+6.3) electrons/keV. The 37 Ar calibration confirms that the detector is well-understood in the energy region close to the detection threshold, with the 2.82 keV line reconstructed at (2.83±0.02) keV, which further validates the model used to interpret the low-energy electronic recoil excess previously reported by XENON1T. The ability to efficiently remove argon with cryogenic distillation after the calibration proves that 37 Ar can be considered as a regular calibration source for multi-tonne xenon detectors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number542
JournalEuropean Physical Journal C
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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